It takes the experience of fear and the chaos of battle,. Dear Ron McLean. The crowd assembled at Fenway offered one of its loudest ovations when the ceremonial opening puck drop was made by a member of the U. In addition, members of the U. Bush administration for example, the idea that Americans should give their unconditional support to U. The goal of this article is to discuss how digital war games 3 have played a similar role. Accordingly, it uses the example of the Call of Duty series to highlight how digital war games contain images and narratives that elicit consent for the U.
Call of Duty is a first-person and third-person shooter series franchise that began on the PC and later expanded to consoles such as Playstation 3 and XBOX While the first four games are relevant to a discussion of digital games and militarism, since they embrace an overwhelmingly positive view of the U. Building on Luiza Bialasiewicz et al.
While the first section of the article offers a review of some of the relevant literature on digital war games and U. Specifically, this analysis focuses on three themes to highlight the ways in which Call of Duty re writes U. For example, in a book called Joystick Soldiers , Nina B. Huntemann and Matthew Thomas Payne have assembled various contributions on the history of the links between militarism and military-themed games, the representation of war in video games, the use of video games for training military personnel, the effects of military-themed games on those who play them, and the acts of anti-war resistance that can be performed in and through war games Huntemann and Payne Nieborg explains that, with its narrative justifying U.
According to Der Derian, this relationship has reached symbiotic proportions: U. Yet the desire of the designers of the game to recreate realistic troops, scenarios, tactics and weapons is crucial to our discussion.
Of course, these quotes do not prove beyond doubt that West and his team had the deliberate intention of disseminating militarist propaganda. However, our point is that their fascination with the U. In line with this argument, the U. To exemplify this, Frank Costigliola reminds us that an event such as the bombing of a factory can be described in many ways.
According to Michel Foucault, power struggles in a given society and the power to assign meaning to such events are inextricable. Foucault sees discourses as unquestioned beliefs, practices, and rules that restrict how people think and act. Indeed, Call of Duty constantly echoes ideas similar to those of various foreign policy hawks who have supported George W. Moreover, the fact that Call of Duty is one of the most popular war games is not without significance here: it shows that the messages embedded in the series have reached millions of people.
Many analysts believe that the digital game industry may eclipse Hollywood for dominance in the entertainment sector within five or ten years Newsweek , date unknown , and the commercial success of Call of Duty suggests that their prediction might come true. Johnson and Gray In the sections below, many examples highlight how the series re writes the ideology of militarism.
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What the hell are we gonna do now, man? His goal is clear: to take power of Russia and gain access to the entire Russian nuclear weapons arsenal, which includes 15, nuclear warheads.
Zakhaev knows that the U. Marine Corps invades the country, a move to which Al-Asad responds by detonating a Russian-made nuclear bomb that kills large numbers of Marines. The U. We soon learn that such an attack could kill over 41 million U. MW2 is set five years after the conclusion of MW. Petersburg and of the offices of a U. The game begins in Afghanistan, where U. The goal here is to open fire on civilians at the airport though the player can abstain and let Makarov and his three colleagues do all the damage. Makarov is then able to convince the Russian people that the terrorist attack was carried out by military-trained American terrorists, a situation that leads to a surprise Russian invasion of America.
Army Rangers, who must help his team to repel Russian attacks on U. As the player proceeds through the level, she can see the effects war would have on an average American suburb. Houses and cars are on fire, enemy tanks roll on the streets, the sky is filled with thick clouds of black smoke, U. Later in the game, MW2 invites players to imagine the impact war would have on a city such as Washington, D. Here again, destruction, fire, smoke, gunshots and explosions give the city an apocalyptic look.
Other U. Specifically, it conveys a clear message about the role the U. Consider the following excerpt from a speech given by U. This idea has been promoted by many U. Every fight is our fight, because what happens over here matters over there. In the same line of argument, it also suggests that the U. On the contrary, in the vision of world politics on which MW and MW2 are based, prospects for peace are dismissed as unrealistic.
We are told that the true role of the state is to kill those who threaten U. Given the linear gameplay of MW and MW2 , the player is never allowed to adopt a different course of action than the one imposed by the creators and the fixed sequence of challenges they imagined. As a result, the player is never given a chance to negotiate with U. For instance, in the Call of Duty environment, the player is soon told one basic fact about war: shooting enemies in the head is preferable to shooting them in the arms, legs or body, since it is more lethal.
The Call of Duty series is no exception to the rule: it gives the player the opportunity to arm herself with most weapons U. In MW , players can even unlock golden-skinned versions of the guns used in the game. The fact that they actually do look like jewels invites players to see them as an ultimate reward and as precious objects in the game.
The quotes are from leading intellectuals, philosophers, military officials or former leaders. That being said, such quotes are given only limited discursive space and importance in MW and MW2 , since the game plots revolve around ideas that contradict most arguments made by peace advocates.
Supervillains all have a lot in common. Their traits usually include narcissism, maniacal laughter and some delirious need to enforce a system of indentured servitude upon the whole human race. Their minions never seem to move fast enough to complete production on whatever odious weaponry needed to enforce their tyrannical objectives. Haste causes process errors, miscommunications and production setbacks. Under these circumstances, evil plots are easily thwarted by whichever superhero is on duty.
When construction fell behind schedule, Darth Vader was sent by Emperor Palpatine to personally oversee the project. When he arrived on the shop floor, Vader immediately started applying his inherent people skills and Six Sigma training to boost workforce morale and increase productivity. Workers tend to be more motivated knowing their next breath literally depends on them meeting a deadline. Vader got right to work reviewing status reports, tracking supply chain productivity and probably using the Force to send design specs and spreadsheets to the printer.
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Meanwhile, Emperor Palpatine also arrived on board the Death Star to make sure he and Vader were sufficiently duplicating their efforts. While Vader and Palpatine were busy manually managing the Death Star construction and negotiating a contract and sign-on bonus to bring Luke Skywalker over to the Dark Side, they overlooked critical gaps in other parts of their enterprise. In particular, the cybersecurity vulnerability that allowed the Rebel Alliance to infiltrate the control bunker, take down the defense shields and obliterate yet another Death Star. Manually managing Death Star production compelled Vader and Palpatine to overlook critical gaps in their enterprise.
If the Empire had implemented manufacturing operations management technology, Vader and Palpatine would have had access to and full visibility of product life cycle management data and work in progress WIP activities — not only on the Death Star, but across their entire galactic enterprise. With automated workflow management functionality, ground personnel could have immediately shared critical data and status updates to Vader and Palpatine about the security breach.
Vader could have authorized a change control process that redirected more resources to the malfunctioning bunker site. He just wanted to take down Superman.
Despite anticipating that Batman would prevail over the Man of Steel, Luthor still set out to create the kryptonian-armed, anti-superhero monster, Doomsday. It was implied that by using his own DNA to reanimate the creature, Luthor might be able to retain some level of control over it. Instead, he wasted time and resources on poorly conceived and rushed operations that failed to deliver results.
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