Jean-Baptiste Tavernier: A Life


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A series of military victories against the Protestants raised Wallenstein's reputation in the Imperial court and in he raised a large army of 50, men to further the Imperial cause. A year he administered a crushing defeat to the Protestants at Dessau Bridge. For his successes, Wallenstein became an Imperial count palatine and made himself ruler of the lands of the Duchy of Friedland in northern Bohemia.

An imperial generalissimo by land, Admiral of the Baltic Sea from 21 April , Wallenstein found himself released from service on 13 August after Ferdinand grew wary of his ambition. Dissatisfied with the Emperor's treatment of him, Wallenstein considered allying with the Protestants. However, he was assassinated at Eger in Bohemia by one of the army's officials, with the emperor's approval. They had raised him bilingually — the father spoke German while his mother preferred Czech — yet Wallenstein in his childhood had a better command of Czech than of German, his parents' religious affiliations were Utraquist Hussitism.

In , Albrecht was sent to the Protestant Latin school at Goldberg in Silesia , where the then-German environment led him to hone his German language skills. While German became Wallenstein's lingua franca , he is said to have continued to curse in Czech. His contact with the Olomouc Jesuits was responsible for his conversion to Catholicism in the same year; the contributory factor to his conversion may have been the Counter-Reformation policy of the Habsburgs that barred Protestants from being appointed to higher offices at court in Bohemia and in Moravia , the impressions he gathered in Catholic Italy.

Wallenstein was made a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece. In , based on recommendations by his brother-in-law and another relative, Adam of Waldstein mistakenly referred to as his uncle, Wallenstein was made chamberlain at the court of Matthias, also chamberlain to archdukes Ferdinand and Maximilian. He used his wealth to win favour and commanding horses for Archduke Ferdinand of Styria for his war with Venice in , thereby relieving the fortress of Gradisca from the Venetian siege, he endowed a monastery in his late wife's name and had her reburied there. In , Wallenstein married Isabella Katharina, daug.

It was a Persianate Muslim Turkmen dynasty established in the 16th century that adopted the regional culture of the Deccan, its members were collectively called the Qutub Shahis and were the ruling family of the kingdom of Golkonda , in and near the modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. In , Shah Jahan forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty , which lasted until when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golcondan sultanate; the dynasty's founder, Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk , migrated to Delhi from Iran , with his uncle, Allah-Quli, some of his relatives and friends in the beginning of the 16th century.

He migrated south, to the Deccan and served the Bahmani sultan, Mohammad Shah , he conquered Golconda, after the disintegration of the Bahmani Kingdom into the five Deccan sultanates. Soon after, he declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate, took the title Qutub Shah, established the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda. He was assassinated in by his son, who assumed the sultanate.

Jamsheed died in from cancer. Jamsheed's young son reigned for a year, at which time the nobility brought back and installed Ibrahim Quli as sultan. During the reign of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah , relations between Hindus and Muslims were strengthened to the point of Hindus resuming their religious festivals like Diwali and Holi ; some Hindus rose to prominence in the Qutb Shahi state, the most important example being the ministers Madanna and Akkanna.

Golconda, with the construction of the Char Minar Hyderabad , served as capitals of the sultanate, both cities were embellished by the Qutb Shahi sultans; the dynasty ruled Golconda for years, until the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Deccan in The Qutub Shahi rulers were great builders, whose structures included the Char Minar, as well as patrons of learning.

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Quli Qutb Mulk's court became a haven for Persian literature. Subsequent poets and writers, however wrote in Urdu, while using vocabulary from Persian and Telugu languages.

By , the Qutb Shahis were using Telugu for their revenue and judicial areas within the sultanate; the Qutub Shahi rulers patronized Persianate culture, but adopted the regional culture of the Deccan, symbolized by the Telugu language and the newly developed Deccani idiom of Urdu became prominent. Although Telugu was not their mother tongue, the Golconda rulers spoke and wrote Telugu, patronized Telugu so they were termed the "Telugu Sultans". In , fearing for his life, Prince Ibrahim Quli fled to the Vijayanagar court, which lavishly patronized the Telugu language. Upon his enthronement as sultan in , Ibrahim Quli was acquainted with Telugu aesthetics ; the Qutb Shahi rulers were much more liberal than their other Muslim counterparts.

The Qutb Shahi Kingdom was like the other Deccan kingdoms, a centralized state; the sultan enjoyed military powers. When expediency demanded, the post of regent was created to carry on the administration on behalf of the king; the Peshwa was the highest official of the sultanate.


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He was assisted by a number of ministers, including Mir Jumla and Khazanadar; the Qutb Shahi dynasty has been considered a "composite" of Hindu-Muslim religio-social culture. These structures are made of beautifully carved stonework, surrounded by landscaped gardens. They are receive many visitors. In , his parents, who were devout Catholics, sent him to study at the Jesuits ' college in Ingolstadt , because they wanted to isolate him from the Lutheran nobles.

In the same year, he inherited Inner Austria—Styria, Carinthia and smaller provinces—from his father. Ferdinand was installed as the actual ruler of the Inner Austrian provinces in and Rudolph II charged him with the command of the defense of Croatia and southeastern Hungary against the Ottoman Empire , he regarded the regulation of religious issues as a royal prerogative and introduced strict Counter-Reformation measures from First, he ordered the expulsion of all Protestant pastors and teachers he established special commissions to restore the Catholic parishes.

The Ottomans captured Nagykanizsa in Hungary in A year Ferdinand tried to recapture the fortress, but the action ended with a defeat due to the unprofessional command of his troops in November During the first stage of the family feud known as the Brothers' Quarrel, Ferdinand supported Rudolph II's brother, who wanted to convince the melancholic Emperor to abdicate , but Matthias' concessions to the Protestants in Hungary and Bohemia outraged him, he planned an alliance to strengthen the position of the Catholic Church in the Holy Roman Empire , but the Catholic princes established the Catholic League without his participation in Philip III of Spain , the childless Matthias' nephew, acknowledged Ferdinand's right to succeed Matthias in Bohemia and Hungary in exchange for territorial concessions in Spain supported Ferdinand against the Republic of Venice during the Uskok War in —18; the Diets of Bohemia and Hungary confirmed Ferdinand's position as Matthias' successor only after he had promised to respect the Estates' privileges in both realms.

The different interpretation of the Letter of Majesty , which summarized the Bohemian Protestants' liberties, gave rise to an uprising, known as the Second Defenestration of Prague on 23 May The Bohemian rebels established a provisional government, invaded Upper Austria and sought assistance from the Habsburgs' opponents.

But Ferdinand's acts against Protestantism caused the war to engulf the whole empire; as a zealous Catholic, Ferdinand wanted to restore the Catholic Church as the only religion in the Empire and to wipe out any form of religious dissent.

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The war left the Holy Roman Empire devastated, its cities in ruins, its population took a century to recover. They were devout Catholics, but Charles II had to grant concessions to his Lutheran subjects in and to secure the predominantly Protestant nobles and burghers ' financial support for the establishment of a new defense system against the Ottoman Turks. Ferdinand's education was managed by his mother, he matriculated at the Jesuits' school in Graz at the age of 8.

His separate household was set up three years later, his parents wanted to separate him from the Lutheran Styrian nobles and sent him to Ingolstadt to continue his studies at the Jesuits ' college in Bavaria. His parents asked William V, Duke of Bavaria , to oversee his education. Maria and William V tried to secure the regency for her, but Rudolph II, the head of the Habsburg family, appointed his own brothers—first Ernest in , in , Maximilian III—to the post; the Estates of Inner Austria urged the Emperor to achieve Ferdinand's return from Bavaria, but Maria resisted and Ferdinand continued his studies at the Jesuits' university.

Ferdinand and his maternal cousin, Maximilian I , were the only future European rulers who studied at a university in the late 16th century, he attended the classes, although his delicate health forced him to stay in his chamber. His religiosity was reinforced during his studies: he did not miss the Masses on Sundays and feast days and made pilgrimages to the Bavarian shrines. Ferdinand completed his studies on 21 December , but Rudolph II allowed him to return to Graz only two months later.

Before leaving for his homeland, Ferdinand solemnly promised to support the university and the Jesuits. The city occupies a strategic position on the narrow Strait of Hormuz , it is the location of the main base of the Iranian Navy. Bandar Abbas is the capital and largest city of Bandar Abbas County. At the census, its population was ,, with 89, families. Its current name is derived from that of Shah Abbas I paired with'port.

The inhabitants of Kedah found him to be a valiant and intelligent person, they made him the king of Kedah. In the year CE, a new kingdom was formed in Kedah consisting of Persian royalty and native Malay of Hindu faith, the capital was Langkasuka.

Tavernier, Jean-Baptiste (1605-1689)

In , a European navigator called citing this as the Persian and Turkish name. Sir Thomas Herbert pronounced, he wrote in that "some write it Gamrou, others Gomrow, othersome Cummeroon. By the s, the city was known as Gameroon. In honor of this victory Gumbroon was renamed Bandar Abbas Port. In the current division of Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan province and one of the most important strategic and commercial center is in the vicinity of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.

Between and , Bandar Abbas was under the control of the Sultanate of Oman and Zanzibar through a lease agreement with Persia; the details of the original lease differed between the Arabic and Persian versions. The Omanis controlled the coastal stretch of some miles from Sadij to Khamir, inland about 30 miles, as far as Shamil, they controlled the islands of Hormuz and Qeshm. In , the Persians attempted to oust the Omanis, but the sultan managed to keep his hold on Bandar through bribery and tribute of the governor of Shiraz.

In —46, an army under the governor general of Fars menaced Bandar to extort tribute, while another army under the governor of Kerman besieged Minab.

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The Omanis threatened to blockade Persia, but the British resident at Bushir convinced them to back down. The Persians recovered the city in Under British pressure following the Anglo-Persian War in , Persia renewed Oman's lease on favourable terms, it was clarified that the leased territory belonged to the province of Fars and that the Persian flag would fly over Bandar Abbas. The rental rate was increased. Under British pressure the agreement was renewed in , but at a higher rate of rent and for a shorter duration. Two months after its renewal, the lease was cancelled by the Persian government, citing a clause which permitted its termination if the sultan of Oman were overthrown.

Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi paid particular attention to Bandar Abbas as a strategic port and during his time the government invested huge amounts of capital in the infrastructure. Bandar Abbas serves as a major shipping point for imports, has a long history of trade with India the port of Surat.

Thousands of tourists visit nearby islands including Qeshm and Hormuz every year. Bandar Abbas was a small fishing port of about 17, people in , prior to initial plans to develop it as a major harbor. By , it had grown into a major city, it has a population of , Bandar Abbas is situated on flat ground with an average altitude of 9 metres above sea level; the nearest elevated areas are Mt. Geno, 17 kilometres to the north, Mt. Pooladi, 16 kilometres to the northwest of the city; the closest river to Bandar Abbas is the River Shoor, which rises on Mt.

Geno and flows. Shah Jahan Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram, better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan , was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from to Shah Jahan was considered to be the most competent of Emperor Jahangir's four sons and after Jahangir's death in late , when a war of succession ensued, Shah Jahan emerged victorious, he put to death all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor in January in Agra under the regnal title "Shah Jahan".

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Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan is best remembered for his architectural achievements; the period of his reign is considered to be the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of, the Taj Mahal in Agra, which entombs his wife Mumtaz Mahal. In September , Shah Jahan fell ill, which set off a war of succession among his four sons, in which his third son Aurangzeb , emerged victorious.

Shah Jahan recovered from his illness, but Aurangzeb put his father under house arrest in Agra Fort from July until his death in January On 31 July , Aurangzeb crowned himself emperor under the title " Alamgir ". The Mughal Empire reached the pinnacle of its glory during Shah Jahan's reign and he is considered to be one of the greatest Mughal emperors.

The name "Khurram" was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar , with whom the young prince shared a close relationship.

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Just prior to Khurram's birth, a soothsayer had predicted to the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum , Akbar's first wife and chief consort, that the still unborn child was destined for imperial greatness. So, when Khurram was born in and was only six days old, Akbar ordered that the prince be taken away from his mother and handed him over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care, Akbar could fulfill his wife's wish to raise a Mughal emperor.

Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he grew up under her care. The two shared a close relationship with each other as Jahangir noted in his memoirs that Ruqaiya had loved his son, Khurram, "a thousand times more than if he had been her own. After Akbar's death in , the young prince was allowed to return to his father's household, thus, be closer to his biological mother; as a child, Khurram received a broad education befitting his status as a Mughal prince, which included martial training and exposure to a wide variety of cultural arts, such as poetry and music, most of, inculcated, according to court chroniclers, by Akbar and Ruqaiya.

In , as Akbar lay on his deathbed, who at this point was 13, remained by his bedside and refused to move after his mother tried to retrieve him.

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Jean-Baptiste Tavernier: A Life Jean-Baptiste Tavernier: A Life
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