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Just like God. S1 in Supplementary Material , which are frequently mixed with hornbeam Carpinus betulus , oaks, wild cherry, and maples  ,  , . The often large coppice stools can be older than years and are therefore regarded as indicators of habitat continuity . Together with dead sprouts, they provide large amounts of coarse woody debris or microhabitats such as rot-holes  ,  , .
For these reasons, over-mature coppices are frequently populated by specialized bryophytes, fungi, slugs, and saproxylic beetles  , . However, the occurrence of very specialized saproxylic beetles in currently over-aged coppices is dependent on long-time ecological continuity in the vicinity of the stands . While recently harvested stands are characterized by a species-rich mixture of forest plants and light-demanding species, the herbaceous vegetation of old coppice stands is different from that of beech high forest stands in the vicinity  ,  ,  ,  , .
Floristic elements of oak-hornbeam forests Stellario-Carpinetum frequently occur in the coppice stands, in particular semi-shade plants such as Stellaria holostea, Vinca minor, Primula elatior , and Rumex sanguineus. The occurrence of these species can be linked to wet soil conditions and compaction resulting from coppice management, which regularly exposes the soils to reduced transpiration and increased precipitation .
Some coppice stands can be assigned to the rare sedge beech forests community Carici-Fagetum , the characteristic plants of this plant community are Cephalanthera damasonium, Viola hirta, Primula veris , and Neottia nidus-avis . At the present time, most of the coppice stools in the over-aged coppices have lost their ability to resprout and regional techniques for creating new coppice stools have not been applied for decades.
Hence, without counteractive measures, the unique coppice habitats will be replaced by high forests in the coming decades  ,  ,  ,  , . Due to the currently increasing demand for fuelwood, the reactivation of coppice management for fuelwood production can be a possible solution see above , if the characteristic habitat features of the coppice woodlands are preserved  , .
Currently, there are conflicts between nature conservation organizations and private forest owners. As a result of nature conservation constraints, the forest owners feel limited in their freedom of decision  , . The decree ruled that woodlands which were owned in common for centuries should be privatized fairly. As a result, a huge number of small private forest parcels were created in the 18 th century. Such developments are in keeping with Europe-wide forest history.
Mainly due to the low economic importance of the forest parcels and the individualism of the forest owners, coppice structures have survived until today. Consequently, a compromise made nearly years ago has resulted in the conservation of valuable coppice habitats worthy of protection, although it has also created some difficulties for modern forest managers. However, these stands are now over-aged and appropriate conservation management strategies are needed.
This research supports the assumption that small private forests support a larger variety of habitats than larger forest management units and details the historical background leading to this difference. It underlines the importance of forest ownership and land tenure in shaping forest development and woodland habitats. Future researchers are encouraged to give more consideration to the important relationship between current woodland biodiversity and the history of forest ownership patterns.
The author would like to thank the conference participants for their valuable comments that helped to improve the manuscript. The author is also indebted to two anonymous reviewers for suggestions that have greatly improved the paper. Total Article Views: from publication date up to now. Web Metrics Days since publication: Overall contacts: Avg. Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site last update: Aug Should the silviculture of Aleppo pine Pinus halepensis Mill.
Diagnosis and current potentiality. Optimizing silviculture in mixed uneven-aged forests to increase the recruitment of browse-sensitive tree species without intervening in ungulate population. Linking biomass production in short rotation coppice with soil protection and nature conservation.
Mechanical Engineering, M.Sc.
Opportunities for coppice management at the landscape level: the Italian experience. The forest biodiversity artery: towards forest management for saproxylic conservation. Deforestation, land conversion and illegal logging in Bangladesh: the case of the Sal Shorea robusta forests. Biodiversity conservation and wood production in a Natura Mediterranean forest. A trade-off evaluation focused on the occurrence of microhabitats. Structure and management of beech Fagus sylvatica L. Effects of different silvicultural measures on plant diversity - the case of the Illyrian Fagus sylvatica habitat type Natura Legal Notice.
References 1. Ernst August II.
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- Vincikalos (Gli emersi) (Italian Edition).
- The Gestural Origin of Language (Perspectives on Deafness).
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Akademie der Wissenschaften ed. Duncker and Humblot, Leipzig, Germany, pp. Behr H-J Landownership is an unexplored determinant of forest understory plant composition in Northern France. Forest Ecology and Management CrossRef Gscholar. BKG Bobiec A Bialowieza Primeval Forest as a remnant of culturally modified ancient forest. European Journal of Forest Research Boyce JR Allocation of goods by lottery. Economic Inquiry Brakensiek S Agrarian individualism in north-western Germany, German History The management of common land in north-western Germany.
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